IT'S A VACUUM TUBE, IT WILL SURELY WORK IN AIR TOO HURR DURR.
Apparently, one piece of that type of tube costs about $40.
He just ruined $320 worth of electronics.
It's probably just someone who had an already broken tube and decided to pull a funny.
Assuming you plan on doing anything other than lighting up a few LEDs
Get a good selection of components, there is nothing worse that finding you don't have the correct component on hand.
Is there anyone I can add to maybe ask some basic questions about electronics? I've got some, and more will probably follow.
Why don't you just go ahead and post them? If they are some basic questions then i can assure you that you will get the answers.
Right, here is one: What's the difference between a 1/4W resistor, a 1/2W resistor and a 1W resistor?
The difference is how much wattage it can take.
P = U * I
Ah, okay, I'm going to watch some videos on basic electronics, my arduino should be arriving around 31may.
The difference basically is it's size. The bigger it is, the more power it can dissipate without failing in a catastrophic manner (smoke, fire, explosions).
I suggest you get 1/4 W resistors, they're all you ever going to need to the beginning.
Right, i'll buy a big set of electrical components tomorrow.
But as Ragy said, you need not worry about the material now.
Resistors have eight basic properties, which depending on what you're doing are worth knowing:
Resistance measured in Ohms
Maximum voltage rating
Tolerance (how close the resistance should be to the marked value, given in %)
Temperature coefficient (how much resistance changes with temperature, given in parts per million)
Voltage coefficient (how much resistance varies with applied voltage, also measured in ppm)
Long term stability (the degree to which resistance drifts over time, measured in ppm)
Noise (the amount of thermal noise and 1/f noise generated by the resistor, given in V/sqrt(Hz).
Lead inductance / capacitance.
Some of the common types of resistors are:
These are your generic cheap resistors, usually available up to 1W and with a tolerance of 5% or more, they have moderate noise and fairly poor temperature coefficient so should be avoided where precision and noise are of concern, but for everything else I'd recommend them.
Similar to the carbon film but with significantly better characteristics, tolerances of 1% are standard so these should be used in circuits where good accuracy and low noise are desired. These are easily identified by their blue coating.
These can either be designed for power or accuracy, some can handle several hundred watts or have tolerances better than 0.05%, they are also extremely stable long term and handle overloads well, they however tend to have poor high frequency response due to high inductance.
Resistors also come in series such as the E6, E12 or E24 series, for a beginner I'd recommend you at least have a decent amount of E12 series resistors, 1/4W carbon film should do the job fine for pretty much anything you'll be doing, getting some 1% metal film would be quite useful however, at least in the commonly used 1k, 10k and 100k values.
Now I'm going to sleep it's 2am
I seem to have run into a little problem. I connected a transistor as a switch, which is switching a 12V psu that controls a 12V DC relay. The relay refuses to switch on when the transistor is supposed to close the circuit. I am measuring the 12V going trough the transistor and arriving at the relay yet it remains inactive. If i connect the psu without the transistor then the relay works just fine. Does anybody have an idea What could be wrong?
Draw your circuit
This should be it.
Q1 is not constantly powered, a separate circuit enables it by sending 3.9V
You should also be using a general purpose transistor not a power high voltage transistor which tend to have poor current gain.
The parallel diode across the relay that Ddrl added is also critical, without it you risk damage to the transistor.
I know that i need to use a diode across the relay to prevent damage but it should work even without it. The diode is only needed for when the relay is going to be switched off. I can't even seem to get it to switch on a.t.m.
Oh wait I just noticed, why is the collector supply the wrong way around...
No wonder you're having issues.
I suggest you do some reading before you blow something up > http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/
Not necessarily, assuming an inductance of 200mH, a coil current of 200mA and a discharge time of 1ms it will product a maximum voltage of 40V.
In the case of the transistor he used he would be fine, but it's still good habit to add such safeties.
My PCBs are finally shipping! Now comes the long, long wait...
Right, I ordered everything, an Arduino and a SHITLOAD of components.
Well, I get a whopping 24 euros a month pocket money.
Brilliant job! Did you use the toner transfer or photo-resist technique?
That HAS to be photo-resist. No way you can get those smooth tracks with toner transfer. I never got them that good with toner transfer. Easy enough with photo resist, though.